It’s often the case that you need to extend your normal build process. To copy files into place before a build. To make files writable or read-only. To copy files out to a folder after a build. That kind of thing.
Very often the go-to of a developer who doesn’t understand the awesome beauty of MsBuild is to open a project’s settings and add pre- or post-build steps.
I often see huge chunks of DOS commands in these steps. The problem with this approach is that all of the commands get executed in a single step. If one command fails the whole thing fails and you often have no idea why.
Is it a copy operation that failed? Did it not create the folder? What?
Since .XXproj files are just MsBuild files with a different extension, it’s far better to remove the pre- and post-build steps and add explicit tasks into the project using the
<Target Name="BeforeBuild"> <!-- Do pre build stuff --> </Target>
<Target Name="AfterBuild"> <!-- Do post build stuff --> </Target>
This works well provided the target is a unique piece of functionality.
If you need to replicate the same build step across many solutions it means making the same change to each project or refactoring the target(s) into a separate file to be called by all projects.
For example, delay signing an assembly after it is built is a general purpose task that you wouldn’t want to paste into every project. Extracting it into a separate script means it can be called by every project that requires it.
Here we tap into the $(PostBuildEventDependsOn) dependency chain and insert our own tasks.
Refactoring into another MsBuild script is fine but requires changing each project file to include an Import statement to refer to the new script. The path can be local to your source code or one of MsBuild’s well-known folders:
<Import Project="$(MSBuildToolsPath)\MyPostBuild.targets" Condition="Exists('$(MSBuildToolsPath)\MyPostBuild.targets')" />
where $(MSBuildToolsPath) usually resolves to somewhere like C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30128. Obviously, if you have a lot of projects this might not be all that appealing.
Adding the condition means that the import won’t fail if the file does not exist. This allows for build steps that only get executed on, say, official build machines and ignored on developer machines.
If you don’t want to modify each project, there are two other folders that MsBuild uses to look for extension points for the command line:
and for the IDE
If you place a target file in both of these locations (first, create the folder, it isn’t created by default) it will be imported by every solution that MsBuild tries to build on that machine.
For me, given that this is targetted at a code base of several hundred assemblies, it’s very nice not to have to update all those project files!
Sneakier Build Process
Rather than using an explicit PostBuildEventDependsOn chain, another alternative is to use the BeforeTargets and AfterTargets attributes to shoehorn the target into the right place in the build process. In this case, because I want to invoke the target after the build but before running an post-build steps, I use the following:
<Target Name="..." AfterTargets="CopyFilesToOutputDirectory" BeforeTargets="PostBuildEvent;AfterBuild" > ... </Target>
So as long as the assembly is in the output folder (after CopyFilesToOutputDirectory) and before any kind of post build event (before PostBuildEvent and AfterBuild events) I can leave it up to MsBuild when it will run the target.